Skip to main content
Internet Archive's 25th Anniversary Logo

Full text of "Vairagya satakam. Or the hundred verses on renunciation."

See other formats





( With original text and comments ) 





Price Eight Annas. 

roil JO no: 

. in EG 

Printed by Mohan Lai Sah Chowdhary, 

at the Prabuddha Bharata Press, Mayavati 

Lohaghat P. 0. 


EB Vairagya-Satakam is one of the three series 
andred verses which have come down to us 
r the title of Subhasita-trishati (lit. 'The* 
ily worded three centuries ' ) and associated 
the name of the poet BhartriharL In some 
[scripts, these verses exceed the number 
ed in the above name, but we have followed 
luthority of an edition published by the 
^ya-sagar Press of Bombay, which 'maintains 
original number. 

idition attributes the authorship of these 
; to Bhartrihari, the elder brother of the most 
ned King Vikramaditya of Ujjaini. Contrq- 
has not yet settled the point as to which 
maditya was the brother of the poet and when 
y did he reign at Ujjaini. . j 

s fact, it seems, that Bhartrihari belonged tb 
il family and "renounced the world later on in 
D become a Yogi forms the most reliable 
is round which growing, and sometimes 
:ting, tradition's have continued to gather. 
'Q is still pointed out near Ujjaini, bearing 
iame ? whefre Bhartrihari is said to-havfc 


practised austerities, A book called the Natha- 
lilamrita recording from hearsay stories about the 
celebrities of the Nathi sect of Yogis contains 
an account of Bhartrihari's life in a loose, legen- 
dary style. But it is easy to make out that, when all 
clue to authenticity about the real facts of Bhartri- 
hari's life became lost to tradition, the memory 
of a career so stimulating to imagination was not 
allowed to go down so hopelessly denuded of 
facts, and the process of adding limbs and features 
to the stump of an older tradition naturally went 
on. Add to this process such floating legendary 
materials as the story about a gift made to one's 
beloved proving her infidelity by changing hands 
till it reached the donor again, or the miracles 
with which the then famous sect of Yogis used 
to be credited and, so on, and you hope to get a 
fairly good biography of, Bhartrihari such as 
gradually gained currency in tradition. 

The verses, composed maybe, with stray excep- 
tions by Bhartrihari himself, cannot be made 
to give any clue to his individual life, for his 
poetry seeks to create effect through style and 
sentiment too conventional to yield themselves 
to such use. But still his life-long lessons from 
experience and- observation must have been 
reflected in their peculiar trend and emphases 
in the movements of sentiment through the verses; 
and it may t>e possible for, a reader of penetrative 
intellect ; to trace out .from such nice shades the 
bare outline of a deeper life; of hard-fought 
struggles and late-won victory. .A. nature, straight- 


forward, possessed of noble faith in itself, un- 
ambitious of high distinction among men, but 
deeply susceptible to the beauties and charms of 
sentiment, seems to have been involved once in 
a tangle of sen suar enjoyments too heavy to leave 
it the sustained strength for wielding the sceptre, 
till from a life of such weakness and consequent 
dependence, it gradually rose through reactions, 
deep and incisive, to a wonderfully enriched 
sense of worldly vanity and an effective strength 
of renunciation. The verses composed by Bhartri- 
hari tend to present to view the background of 
such a nature still holding in control lower 
susceptibilities, once indulged, by the dawning 
possibilities of a life of Yoga. And though it 
is difficult to ascertain how far this life of Yoga 
had advanced behind the role of the poet re- 
presenting different stages of wisdom, it is fairly 
presumptive that the poet's voice gradually merged 
in the silence of the highest spiritual realisations. 

The hundred verses of the Vairagya-Satakam 
are divided into ten groups under the following 
ten headings : ^regfffi*& condemnation of desire ; 
r y futile eiforts to give up sense- 

objects ; *U^K-^<^4% condemnation of the poverty 
of a supplicant attitude ; MMUt:l4*lK, delineation 
of the evanescence of enjoyments ; 

description of the working of Time, or the 
principle of change; ^f&^ffi^reTOR, a com- 
parison as to how a monk stands to a king ; SR:- 
Rr control of mind by stimulating wis- 

dom, in it; f^rpfcrctsgRrorc: descrimination of the 


ihimutable reality from the mutable; 
'worship of Shiva; ^sp^r, the way of life for an 

Abadhuta, or a self-realised ascetic characterised by 
'highest spiritual freedom. 

With these few remarks of a prefatory nature,, 
'we send forth this English translation of an 

important poetical production of mediaeval India 

into the world of modern readers. The transla- 
tions have been made rather too closely literal 

specialty to suit the convenience of those reader's- 
.who want to follow the original Sanskrit with their 

help, Owing to the circumstance of the whole book 
'being practically published in monthly instalments 
'through the columns of the Prabuddha Bharata y 

we could not avoid prefixing a table of errata to 

this first edition. 



In: For: Read 

Verse 7, translation, 
8, text, f 


30, translation, No. 32, No. 23. 

36, text, 
40^ jj 

60, note, and Kapala Kapala 

72, translation, end of the tip of the 
ear, ear, 

7> text, 

etc. r^rr^ etc. 

82, translation, cultivation of cultivation 
tion of of 

88, text, 

N. B. The translation of the verse, 39, appeared 
in the Prabuddha Bharata in an improved form as 
follows : Manifold and transitory in nature are the 


tnjoyments and of such is this world it 
So what for would you wander about h 
men ? Cease exerting yourselves (for the: 
if you put faith in our word, on its 
Foundation (lit. abode) concentrate you 
purified by quelling hope with its hundred 
and freed from its liability to create desire. 

This translation again was supplinoented 
following notes : 

, ( we accept this reading as 

in the edition we translate from, but the n 
given of it by the commentator Budhendra 
not here follow. He makes the expression 
the verb ' concentrate/ explaining ^r*T as 
or love. His meaning thus becomes : swa 1 
the development of love or Bhakti). Li 
(turned) away from the necessity (^f) (in 
upon it ) of (or by) the creation of desires. 

Enjoyments are transitory individually a 
exhaustible collectively, so we are in a neve 
ing wild-goose chase which brings in turns si 
tion and grief. Desire produces this t 
entanglement and hope keeps it on. The 
don't exert yourself for these enjoyments 
freeing your mind from hope and desire, 
high on its supreme goal. This is the argun: 

The Vairagya-Satakam. 

Or the Hundred Verses on Renunciation. 




the heart ea mass at 

All gl ory to Sh] - h 
residing in the t emple of 


heart, who smites away (like th< 
son) the massive front of the endles 
of ignorance overcasting human mi] 
whose wake follow all auspiciousne 
prosperity, who burnt up gay I 
a moth, as if in sport, and who 
beaming with the lambent rays of the 
adorning his forehead, rays that loot 
Ing like soft half-blooming buds. 


2. iJHchj4fi^4' rendered difficult of acces 
ous obstacles im result, (but here) wealth'. 
hankering (after .gain) q(qeK*HlV3H indi 
evil deeds. 

2. Many are the inaccessible and 
places I have travelled and yet obta 
riches ; sacrificing proper dignity of bi 
social position, in vain have I ser 
rich; like the crows, have I fed n 
devoid of self-respect, at the house o 
la the expectation of gain ; and j 
Beslre f yoe prompter of evil deeds, 
lustier and are not still satisfi* 



3. The earth have I digged into in quest 
of precious minerals, and metals from rocks 
have I blown ; the ocean have I crossed, and 
the favour of kings have I diligently sought ; 
nights have I spent on burning grounds with my 
mind occupied with mantras and worship ; * 
and not even a broken cowrie have I obtained ; 
be satisfied therefore, oh ! Desire. 

* This forms a part of the mysterious rites to be 
gone through by. those who invoke supernatural 
agencies for obtaining riches. 


those rendered dull in 
intellect by inactivity due to too much wealth, 
<%*^ with hopes thwarted, 

4. In our servile attendance oii the 
(wealthy) wicked r their shabby manners and 
talk we have somehow put up with ; suppress^ 
ing te2trs that welled up from out hearts, we 
have smiled out of vacant minds; obeisance 


we have made to dullards stultified by too 
much wealth ; in what more fooleries would 
you have me dance, oh ! Desire, thou of un- 
gratified yearning. 

5. What have we not endeavoured to do, 
with our depraved conscience, for the sake of 
our prams (five vital forces) which are un- 
reliable and compared to water on the 
leaves of lotus, since in presence of the rich, 
with their minds stupefied by the pride of 
wealth, we have shamelessly committed the 
sin of recounting our own merits 1 

[ According to tlie scriptures, self-glorification is 

tantamount even to the sin of suicide.] 


& We have forgiVen, but not out of for- 

(but out of our incapacity to right 

ow wongs); we have renounced the comforts 

life, but not out of contentment after 

(bllt w aQ exije froffi home 


quest of riches ) ; though we have suffered in- 
clemencies of weather, cold and heat so diffi- 
cult to bear, still it is no religious austerities 
that we have undergone ; with subdued vital 
forces, night and day have we brooded on 
money and not on the feet of Shiva ; we have 
performed thus those very acts which the 
Munis ( saintly recluses) do perform, but of 
their good effect we have deprived ourselves 


[ Here there is an ironical pun on the participles 
jJrfiT and flHT, the former being used both in the 
sense of " enjoyed" and "eaten up", and the latter 
both in the sense of "(austerities) performed" and 
" heated." Similarly the participle ^faji 1 means 
both " reduced in force" and " stricken down with 
age." The effect of course cannot be preserved 
in translation.] 

7. The worldly pleasures have not been 
enjoyed ( ^FT i* e. enjoyed ) by us, but we our- 
selves have been devoured ( ^JTBT i. e. eaten up 
or dissipated ) ; no religious austerities have 
been gone through (SHFT), but we ourselves 
have become scorched (enTP i< e. by the auster- 
ities of grief or anxiety ) ; time Is not gone 
( aniT'j being ever-present and infinite ), but 
it is we who are gone ( sflRrn because of ap- 

preaching death). Desire is notreduo 
force ( sffafr ) though we ourselves are ret 
to senility ( 

: 8. The face has been attacked 
wrinkles, the head has been painted white 
grey hair, the limbs are all enfeebled 
desirfe alone is rejuvenating. ' 

9. Though my compeers, dear to n 
life, have all taken such a speedy fligi 
hea^ea (.Le. before being overtaken b) 
age ), though the impulse, for enjoyjne 
wearied out and the respect commanded 
all persons lost* though my sight is obstn 
by deep blindness ( or cataract ) and the 
C.Q taise itself but slowly on the staff 
alas for its silliness; this body startles at 
thought of dissolution by death, 


10. " Hope is like a flowing river of which 
the ceaseless desires constitute the waters ; it 
rages with the waves of keen longings and the 
attachments for various objects are its animals 
of prey ; scheming thoughts of greed are the 
aquatic birds that abound on it, and it des- 
troys in its course the big trees of patience 
and fortitude ; it is rendered impassable by the 
-whirlpools of ignorance and of profound depth 
of bed as it is, its banks of anxious delibera- 
tion are precipitous indeed. Such a river the 
great Yogis of pure mind pass across to enjoy 
supreme felicity. 

II. I do not find the virtuous distinction 
produced (by ceremonial observances) through 
life after life to be conducive to well-being, 
for the sum of such virtuous merits when 
weighed in mind inspires fear in me. Enjoy- 
ments earned 'by great accession of merit 
multiply so greatly in the" case of people 
attached to them only to bring them misery 
and peril. 

f%TOi5 'Spwpri etc. The idea is to show the 

futility of good deeds performed in our ert'h- 
Jy life with the_object of enjoying happiness in the 


of bi 

added volume of 


^^roip; t 
w *R^: 

leave us stttotinti W are sure 



13. Ah! it must be indeed a difficult feat 
which persons, with their minds purified by 
the discrimination arising from knowledge of 
Brahman, accomplish, in that, free from desire, 
they wholly discard that wealth which has 
been actually bringing them enjoyment ; 
whereas we fail to renounce enjoyments which 
are reaped by us as mere longings and which 
we never did realise in the past, nor do we 
realise now, nor can we count upon as lasting 
when obtained (in future ). 

14. Blessed are those who live in mountain 
caves meditating on Brahman, the Supreme 
Light, while birds devoid of fear perch on 
their laps and drink the tear-drops of bliss 
(that they shed in meditation) ; while our life 
is fast ebbing away in the excitement of 
revelry in palatial mansions or on the banks of 
refreshing pools or in pleasure-gardens, all 
created (and brooded over) merely by imagi* 
nation I 



The birds have approached 
them fearlessly because they have reached the 
state of quietism and harmlessless, realising the 
oneness of all life. 

15. For food, (I have) what begging 
brings and that too tasteless and once a day ; 
for bed, the earth, and for attendant, the body 
itself ; for dress, (I have) a worn-out blanket 
made up of hundred patches ! And still alas ! 
the desires do not leave me ! 

Objects of desire haunting the mind.] 

16. JTr^T^ft lumps of flesh ( dual number ). 
gpffi^^orari^g^f^t ( become ) golden jugs in 
(poet's) comparison. %s?TnTTC seat of phlegm, 
saliva etc. Wlffsr gJ^T^ is compared to the moon. 


likeness with the ele- 

phant's forehead. fff^??t ^t etc. form deserving 
constant contempt has been magnified (in praise) 
by certain poets. 




: n^vsil 

17. Among sensual persons, Shiva is 
unique, sharing half his body with His be- 
loved ; and again, among the dispassionate, 
there is none superior to him, unattached to 
the company of women ; while the rest of 
mankind smitten and stupefied by the irresist- 
ible, serpent-like poisoned arrows of Cupid, 
and brought under the infatuation of Love, 
can neither enjoy their desires nor renounce 
them at will. 

This refers to the symbolic re- 
presentation of Shiva and Gouri in a single divided 

* c On one side grows the hair in long and black curls 
. And on the other, corded like rope 

=* * * * * 

One side is white with ashes, like the snow- 


The other golden as the light of the dawn. 
For He, the Lord, took a form, 
And that was a divided form, 
Half-woman and half-man." 

* : Ordinary persons when they 
give themselves up to enjoyments, lose all control 
and become slaves to them ; so even when satiety 
comes, they cannot detach themselves from them, 
as the force of blind attachment has enslaved 
them. But Shiva, who has subdued his mind, is 

1 8. Without knowing its burning power the 
insect jumps into the glowing fire; the fish 
through ignorance eats the bait attached to- 
the hook ; whereas we, having full discernment 
do not renounce the sensual desires compli- 
cated as they are with manifold dangers ;, 
alas ! how inscrutable is the power of delusion. 

tsr ^wrenr 

: Hf tft 

19. When the mouth is parched with thifetfj 
man takes some cold refreshing (or sweetened) 
drink ; when suffering from hunger he 
swallows boiled rice made delicious with meat 
and the like ; when set on fire by lust, he 
fast embraces his wife ; so happiness is but 
the remedying of these diseases ( of hunger,, 
thirst and lust ) ; and behold, how man (i. e, 
his sense ) is upset in its quest ! 

The main point i\ be* 


understood is this, namely that worldly happiness 
is but the temporary remedy we constantly seek 
from all the diseases with which worldly life is 
beset. When this relative and fugitive nature of 
happiness becomes apparent to us, we naturally 
give up running after it to seek permanent peace in 


20. Possessed of tall mansions,, of sons 
esteemed by the learned, of untold wealth, of 
a beloved wife full of beneficence, and of 
youthful age, and thinking this world to be 
permanent, men deluded by ignorance run 
into this prison-house of worldliness ; whereas, 
he is blessed indeed who considering the 
transiency of the same world renounces it. 

21. If one had no occasion to see one's 
wife suffering without food and sore ag- 
grieved at the constaat sight of hungry crying 


children with piteous looks pulling at her 
worn-out clothes, what self-respecting man 
would for the mere sake of his own petty 
stomach utter "give me" (i. e. become a 
supplicant for favour ) in a voice faltering and 
sticking at the throat for fear of his prayer 
being refused? 

22. The pit of our stomach so hard to fill 
is the root indeed of no small undoing : it 
is ingenious in severing the vital knots, as it 
were, of our fond self-respect ; it is like the 
bright moonlight shining on the lotus ( that 
species which blooms only in the sun) of 
highly estimable virtues; it is the hatchet 
that hews down the luxuriant creepers of our 
great modesty. 


I ^ 


23. For the sake of filling the cavity 

: " W 



the stomach when hungry, a man of self- 
respect would wander from door to door with 
a broken pot (in hand) having its edgeTcovered 
with white cloth, away in e2Lte_rj^me_wj3od- 
lands^or holy places of which the approaches 
are grey all over with the smoke of sacnficial- 
fi,res tended by Brahmanas versed in ^ritualistic- 
/fnceties, and thus preserve the pranas, rather 
than live (like) a beggar from day to day 
among those who are socially one's equals. 

[ It should be remembered that living on alms 
for a man of true renunciation is held in high 
esteem in India, for no social merit can be higher 
than giving up the world for the sake of the 
national ideal of spirituality. ] 

24.. Ah ! is it that those Himalayan soli* 
tudes, cooled by the liquid spray of Ganges 
waves and abounding in beautiful rocky flats 
such as are the haunts of Vidyadharas, are 
all engulfed in destruction that men in dis- 
grace hang on others for their maintenance? 

[ The Vidyadharas are unearthly beings with 
superhuman skill in arts, specially music. ] 

r: ST^RTg'FTciT 


25. Or is it that herbs and roots 1 
grovy caves, and streams on hill-sides hav 
disappeared, or that branches of trees bee 
luscious fruits and yielding barks are 
destroyed, that the faces of wretches, perf 
devoid of good breeding, are found to 
their eye-brows dancing like creepers in 
wind of an arrogance which their scanty c 
ing eked out with hardship engenders in th 

26. Therefore, now, accepting fruits 
roots, ordained as sacred, for the most ei 
able means of maintenance, and (so also 
earth (laid on) with verdant leafy twigs for 
bed, oh, rise and repair to the forest, w 
even the name is not constantly heard of 
ignoble rich whose minds are stultifiec 
indiscretion and whose speech is delii 
with the maladies of wealth. 



27. When there is the fruit of trees easily 
obtainable at will in every forest, when there 
is cool refreshing drink in holy streams from 
place to place and soft bed made of tender 
twigs and creepers, still (alas ! ) men aggrieved 
with lucre undergo sorrows at the doors of 
the rich. 

28. Reposing on the bed of Stone within the 
mountain cave, during intervals of meditation, 
(well) may I recollect with an inward smile the 
days of those afflicted through their suing be- 
fore the rich, or of those growri mean 
through their minds being content with seek- 
ing enjoyments. *" 

[ If this verse is read differently with ^^% for 
3^5% and ^rarnOT for^TOTrftl, the idea becomes, in 
the words of Mr. Telang, this: "The suppliant of 
the rich thinks the days too long as he has to suffer 
the trouble of constant entreaties often unsuccess- 
ful ; the person engaged in the pursuit of worldly 



objects thinks time too short ; he has never e 
of it to compass all his numerous ends. ( 
other hand the philosopher laughs at both fo 
delusions." In this case q in lines i and 2 
to days, and for ^afnr in line 2 we have t 
too. ] 

r *r r^ranr 

29. The felicity of those, whom cot 

<Ab\Qj^**-rt 11 - 

mentjLmceasnigly makes nappy, is not 
rnpted, while the" cravings of those of ff 
and confounded minds are nevernjuen 
Such being the case, for whom did 
Creator create the Meru, representing i 
ceivable wealth, but confining to itsel 
glorious potency of its gold? I wouk 
covet it. 

SFftSf ^% ^fTJ etc. The idea is that Mer 
( fabled ) mountain of gold, serves no usefu 
pose to anybody, and so I would not go in 

% d^RT ) ; because those that are contente 
quite happy without possessing it, and thosi 
hanker after wealth feel never satisfied ho 
soever might be their acquisitions, ^pir?^ 
fWftTT Its gold serves only to glorify itel 
not to satisfy the greedy. 


30. The great Yogis describe food which 
begging brings as follows : it does not humi- 
liate (vide Verse No. 32) ; it is an independent 
pleasure ( i. e. not dependent on the pleasure 
of earning money or fulfilling social duty etc.); 
it is in all respects free from any anxious 
fear ( i. e. about one's expenditure, or food- 
stores etc. ) ; it destroys wicked pride, egotism 
and impatience ; it eradicates the manifold 
evils of worldly existence ; it is easily avail- 
able anywhere any day without efforts ; it is 
the beloved of the holy men ; it is a purifica- 
tion by itself; it is as the inexhaustible feed- 
ing-house of Shiva, access to which none can 

31. In enjoyment, there is the fear of 
disease ; in social position, the fear of falling- 
off ; in wealth, the fear of (hostile ) kings ; in 
honour, the fear of humiliation ; in power, the 
fear of foemen ; in beauty, the fear of" old age ; 


in scriptural erudition, the fear of op] 
in virtue, the fear of traducers ; in b 
fear of death. All the things of th 
pertaining to man are attended w 
.renunciation alone stands for fearless 

32. Birth is preyed upon (lit. atta 
death ; brilliant youth by old age; 
inent by greed ; happiness of self-co 
the wiles of gay women ; virtues by 
ousyofmen; gardens by predatory 
.kings by the wicked in counsel ; anc 
even are vitiated by their evanescenc 
on earth is not seized upon by sc 


^ & 

33. H?altJLomenl^ (I 

out) by various hundreds of ailments 


mind; whereupon Lakshmi (the goddess 
prosperity) alights, there perils find an 
open, access ; death sure annexes to itself, 
sundering impotent very soon, whatever is 
born again and again. Then what is created 
stable by the absolute Creator? 

34. - Enjoyments are unstable like the 
breaking of high billows, life is liable to 
speedy dissolution; the buoyancy of youthful 
happiness centred in our objects of love lasts 
for few days. Understanding that the whole 
world is unsubstantial, ye wise teachers of men 
-'with minds intent on benefitting mankind 
(t>y living exemplary lives ) put forth your 
energies for attaining the (highest beatitude). 

r of men 3T*n for 

tlie benefitting (out of kindness) q-stf^ attached. 
'The sense is that out of sympathy for suffering 
Tnankind, you shall by your exemplary lives and 
your counsels show men the way to cross the ocean 
of Samsara (world). 


35- Enjoyments of embodied beings are 
fleeting like the quick play of lightning within 
a mass of clouds ; life is as insecure as a drop 
of water attached to the edge of a lotus-leaf 
and dispersed by the wind : the desires of 
youth-are unsteady ; realising these quickly 
let the wise firmly fix their minds in Yoga' 
.easily attainable by patience and equanimity.' 

: I 

36. Life is changing like a huge wave, 
.beauty of youth abides for a few days. Earth- 

X possessions are as transient as thought ; 

he whole senes of our enjoyments are like 
( occasmnal ) flashes of autumnal lightning. 
The embrace round the neck given by our 
beloveds hngers only for a while. To cross the 


ocean (of the fear) of the world, attach your 
mind to Brahman. 

the great fear of finding yourself hound 
by the world attended with so much afflictions and 
yet finding no way out of it, 

* \ 

37. In the womb man- lies within impure 
matter in discomfort with limbs cramped ; 
in early life, enjoyment is tainted with the' 
intense suffering of mental distraction arising; 
from separation from our beloved ; even old 
age (is undesirable), being the object of con- 
temptible laughter from women. (Then) oh ! 
men, say if there is a particle of happiness 
in the world, 

[The idea is that all the stages of life, begmmftg 
from the embryo, are not worth living, attended as 
Jiey are with serious drawbacks.] 


38. Old age looms (ahead) frightening 
like a tigress ; (different ) diseases afflic 
(human) body like enemies; life is fit 
away like water running out of a leaky v< 
,, still, how wonderful, that man goes on < 
wicked deeds. 

39. Enjoyments are ephemeral in 
nature, and this world is composed of di 
kinds of such enjoyments; then, for 
enjoyments are yon, O man, striving 
and roaming after ? So if you have 
in our words, concentrate with new- 
love the mind rendered tranquil by the 
pressiou of the hundred bondages of desi 
its own sphere (the Self or the Brahman) 



40. There Is one Enjoyment and one 
alone, lasting immutable and supreme, of 
xvhich the taste renders tasteless the greatest 
possessions such as the sovereignty of the 
three worlds, and established in which a 
Brahma, Indra or the gods (i. e. their posi- 
tions) appear like particles of grass. Do not, 
oh ! Sadhu, set your heart on any ephemera! 
enjoyment other than that, 

41, That lovely city, that grand monarch 
and that circle of feudatory kings at his side, 
that cabinet of shrewd counsellors of his 
and those beauties with moon-like faces, that 
group of princes in the heyday of youth, 
those court-minstrels and their songs of 
praise, all this fleeted away along the 
way of memory under whose power, to that 
Kftla (time or the principle of change) saluta- 
tion ! 

is, here < with full-blown energies/ ] 


42. Where in some home ( or, a square 
In the case of a checkerboard ) there once 
were many, there is now one, and where there 
was one or many successively, there is none 
at the end (of the game), -this is the process 
in which expert KUla plays (his game) on 
the checkerboard of this world with living 
Beings as the pieces and casting the two dice 
of day and night 

43. Daily with the rising and setting of 
the sun, life shortens, and time (I e* its flight) 
is not felt on account of affairs heavily 
burdened with manifold activities. Neither 
is liar produced at beholding birth, death, old 
age and sufferings. (Alas,) the world is be- 
come mad by drinking the stupefying wine of 


' 44. Seeing though the same night to be 
ever following the same day, In vain do 
creatures run on (their worldly course ) perse- 
veringly and busy with various activities set 
agoing secretly I, e. by individual menial 
resolves. Alas, through infatuation we do not 
feel ashamed at being thus befooled by this 
samsara (life) with occupations in which the 
same particulars repeat themselves f 

[The idea is : how profoundly deluded by desire 
we live ! For never growing old itself, it makes 
all things look fresh and new, otherwise no worldly 
pursuit has any real novelty. They are as stale as 
the uniform appearance of day and night follow- 
ing each other.] 




45, 46, 47- T ^CR[ etc. The feet of tb 
liave not been meditated upon (by me) in d 
for the sake of doing away with this san 
worldly bondage. ^f%K etc, neither has 
(merit through performance of religious 
been earned such as is strong to knock 03 
gates of heaven. *rT5%^5TO' etc. We have 
proved to be hatchets, as it were, to cut dc 
garden of our mother's youth, i. e. we have 
made our mother age through giving birtl 
That is the only result, we find worthy of m< 

sfT^'nOT etc. The proper scholarship 
cultured man such as enables on to defes 
of disputants, has not been acquired, ^jrsm 
By the point of the sword strong to knoc! 
the eapacious temples of elephants fame \ 
been carried to the heaven, ^im^ etc. 
has youth passed away like lamp in a c 


etc. Knowledge free from defect 
not been mastered ; ^'tfg^Hlflr means 'free from 
Doctrines incapable of proof/ f^r ^T etc. riches 
are earned. U^^TpT etc. Services to parents 
not been rendered with single-mindedness. 
etc. . Like crows, all the time has been 
I>a.ssed in greediness for food, i. e. maintenance, 
obtainable from others,, 

[These three stanzas (nos. 45, 46, 47) strike a 

*"a.ther anomalous note. Here the poet personates 

a. man whose life has been, like the lamp burning 

iriL a deserted abode, a thorough failure. Such a 

ixian is looking back on his youthful years of uiv 

ttutigated worthlessness. But are the reflections he 

Is making here typical of those who are at the 

tlireshold of true renunciation ? By no means are 

tliey typical. The poet here simply takes up a 

[particular case of an aspirant after renunciation 

"which may just serve his poetical purposes best 

This aspirant has had in his youth no taste of glory 

either as a pious man, a dutiful son, a scholarly 

student, a brave warrior or a lover of women. He 

appears to lament here that none of the fourfold 

aims of human life (spwji, religious merit; unf 

wealth ; gfflW, fulfilment of desires, and TNf, final 

salvation) has been pursued by him in the past with 

any the slightest success. Perhaps be means that 

that is best calculated to impress on his mind the 

^vanity of all the ends of a householder's life. But 

"this impression of vanity and consequent non- 

attachment may very well come, and come witfa 

perhaps greater completeness, to men who had the 


ability to succeed in life, and such men ma) 
all look back with any lingering regret on 
ments he is going to leave behind, whethc 
harvest had been actually reaped by him 
There is even some inconsistency in the 
regret running through these stanzas. B 
poet is here more concerned with dramatic 
than psychological precision, ] 

48. Those from whom we were bon 
they are now on intimate footing with 
nity (i. e. hereafter) ; those with who 
were brought up have also become < 
of memory. Now (that we have becon 
we are approaching nearer to our fall < 
day, our condition being comparable t 
of trees on the sandy bank of a river, 

css icm ujcic uc lui 

mortals in a life (again) which is even jnore 
uncertain than the ripples (on the surface}""oT 

if ifr 

50. Now a child for a while and then a 
youth of erotic ways, a destitute now for a 
while and then in abundance, just like an 
actor thus, man makes at the end of his role 
when diseased in all limbs by age and 
wrinkled all over the body, his exit behind 
the scene that veils the abode of Yama 



51, Thou art a king, we too are c 
through self-assurance about our 
acquired from our preceptor whom we 
Thou art celebrated throngft thy poss 
our fame is spread abroad in all quar 
the learned men. Thus a great di; 
there is between both of us, made by 
and riches. If thou art cold towards us 
are perfectly indifferent towards you. 

, [ This Sloka is addressed by a Yati, (c 
has -renounced the world) to a king. T 
wants to inform the king of the vamtj 
possessions, and so is declaring that a 
greater than the king. For, the king is 
wealth only but he is rich in wisdom which 
command even the respect of a king. ] 

52. Thou exercisest kingly powei 

r riches, we do the same over words (i. 
or scriptures ) in all their senses. Th 
a hero ( in battle ), while we have , 
failing skill in methods of subduing the 
of disputants, It is the rich who serve 


le, intent on learning ( higher truths ), 
i serve us to have all imperfections of 
d destroyed. If thou hast no regard for 
well, oh 5 king, L^have absolutely none 

3, Here we are satisfied with bark of 
s and you with rich garment ; (and yet) 
contentment is alike, (so) the distinction 
:es no difference. Poor indeed is he whose 
res are boundless. If the mind be con- 
ed, who is rich and who poor ? 

One who is satisfied with even what little he 
esses is ;as good as rich.] 

^ Fruits for food, tasteful water for drink, 
e ground to lie upon, barks of trees for 
hing, are sufficient (for us). I cannot 
ig myself to approve of the misbe- 
iour of evil men whose senses are all 


astray by drinking the wine of newly ace 

55, Let us eat^the food we have be 
let the sky be our clothing, let us He 
on the surface of the earth ; what have 
do with the rich ? 

*the f our quarters, ] 

56. Who are we to go to see a king 
court jesters, pimps or singers, nor e: 
in ( learned ) disputes with others 
court, nor youthful court mistresses ! ( 
is, we have absolutely no business to 
a king ). 

ft fi: 3 

57. In ancient times (the kingdom ol 
world was created by some lafge-hi 


archs ; by some was it sustained ( i. e. 
i ) and by others was it conquered and 
n away like straw* Even now, some 
es enjoy the fourteen divisions of the 
d. For what then is this feverish pride 
len having sovereignty over a few towns 

*f The fourteen divisions of the 
i, that is, the entire created universe. ] 

3. What high dignity, as it were, is there 
kings iri gaining that earth which has 
sr for st moment been left tmenjoyed by 
dreds of rulers! The stupid owners of 
i a shred of the limb of a fraction of its 
tion (i.e. of the most minute particle) 
delighted whefeas, on the contrary, they 
ht to grieve ! 



59, . It ( the earth ) is but a lump of clay 
circled by a trace of water ! Even the whole 
of it is but a particle. Hosts of kings having 
partitioned it after fighting hundreds of 
battles enjoy it These very poor insigni* 
ficant persons might give while giving, or 
otherwise. But downright shame on those 
mean fellows who would beg bits of coin from 
them even I 

60. That man is indeed born (truly great) 
whose white skull (after death) is placed 
by (Shiva) the enemy of Madana (Cupid) 
high on the head as an ornament ; ( and) what 
is ( worth ) this rising fever of exceeding pride 
in men, who are now-a-days adored by some 
people with minds intent on the preservation 
of their Jives ! 

[ The great Shiva is called Kapdli, and Kapfila 
meaning' "skull"; the popular belief is that h^ 
puts on his head the skull of a hero whose wonder- 
ful life lived on earth merits this distinction. ] 



61. Why, oh heart, dost thou set thyself 
on winning good graces, so hard to secure, by 
daily propitiating other men's minds in vari- 
ous ways? When, being serene inwardly 
and free from society, thou hast gems of 
thought rising up of themselves ( i. e. when 
desires do not induce your thinking ), what 
objects mere wish ( even ) would not bring 

The idea would come out more clearly, if we 
read, as many have done, IfcHI^Morl an( * 

first expression would then mean ' a 
( chaotic ) mass of troubles ', instead of * hard to 
secure ', and the verb frofir would have its primary 
sense of 'entering into/ *1 ^$ 

would then mean " having the virtue of a philoso- 
pher's stone developed of itself in thee," i. e. one 
of the eight Yogic powers, ( %fixi' [ ftfar&: we prefer 
to render as 'free from the company of others/ a 
state opposed to what is implied when we have to 
depend on others for gratifying our desires. ] 



62. Why dost them, my ttrind, \ 
: about in vain? Rest ( thyself ) some 
Whatever happens in whatever way, he 
so by itself, and not otherwise* So not 
Ing over the past nor resolving abo 
future* I realise enjoyments that come 
but engaging my thoughts, 

63. Desist, oh heart, from the tro 
labyrinth of sense-objects ; take that p 
( highest ) good which is capable of bi 
about in a moment the destruction of t 
troubles ; get thee to the state of thy A 
give up thy stream-like agitated flu 
calm now and never again seek tn 
worldly attachments. 


64, Clear off delusion and earn de 
to Him whose crown is begemmed wi 
Oh heart I accept 


some spot on the banks of the celestial river. 
What reliability is there on waves or bub- 
bles, flashes of lightening or (smiles of) 
fortune, in tongues of flame, serpents or hosts 
of friends ? 

65. Oh heart! never for a while earnestly 
think of the frail goddess of fortune, whose 
business is to sell herself away while moving 
\n her haunt, namely the wrinkle of a king's 
brow, (i. e. the bargain is struck by the smile 
or the frown of kings). Let us clothe our- 
selves in ragged garments and entering the 
doors of houses in the streets of Benares 
wait for the alms to be placed in the recept- 
acle of otJr hands. 

%inr: srf^r ^^rr InN^tA ^HT^rrusc I fi 

66. If there are songs (going on) before 
you, sweet (skilful) poets fronp the South by 
yur side and the tinkling of the 

bracelets of female waiters with waving 
ckowries in their hands, then lavishly attach 
thyself to the enjoyment of worldly happi- 
ness. If otherwise, oh my heart! plunge into 
the absolute type of meditation. 

r The deepest concentration 
losing all separate consciousness of the knower 
the known and the knowing. ^nTO is the bushy 
tail of the yak used as a fan being an insignia of 

[ The argument in this Sloka is that if you can 
find only enjoyment everywhere you may enjoy, 
but really such enjoyment cannot be found in this 
world of misery. All worldly pleasures are tran- 
scient and limited. For, in the next Sioka we find 
that the author is preaching the uselessness of the 
fulfilment of worldly desires. ] 

fiw*. ^Ewraratw^n^Rn f% 

67. What then, though embodied beings 
obtain that prosperity from which all desires 
are milked? What if their feet be placed on 
the heads of their enemies? Or what if their 
wealth brings friends, or if their bodies endure 
till the end of the creative cycle? , , 


68. When there is devotion for Shiva, as 
also fear of birth and death iii the heart, no at- 
tachment for famil}', no excitement of sexual 
passions, when there is the solitude of forest 
depths, unsullied by the company (of world- 
ly men) and, aye, when there is renunciation, 
what better then is to be wished for? 

*raf??r 11^5.11 

69. What avails all this agitating over the 
unreal ? Meditate, therefore, on that supreme, 
infinite, ageless, all-pervading, Brahman, in 
the light of Which all enjoyments like the 
sovereignty of the world appear as the desires 
of pitiable men ! 


mm *nr 


70. Being thus agitated, oh mind, you- 
( now ) descend into the nether regions, 
( now ) soar up beyond the skies, and wander 
all around the four quarters. Why, even by 
mistake, do you not once concentrate on that 
Brahman of the nature of self and bereft of 
all imperfections, whereby you may attain 
supreme bliss ! 

[^rr^^M means "belonging to self/' as the 
real state of self is Brahman. The other reading 
?TF*T5ffct would mean " submerged in self/' being 
its substance or reality. ] 

71. What are worth the Vedas, the 
Smritis, the readings from Puranas, the vast 
Shastras, or the mazes of ceremonials, which 
give us, as their fruits, a resting-place in 
heaven, (which is, as it were, ) a village (inter- 
spersed ) with huts! All else is but the 
bargaining of traders except that one way 
which admits one into the state of supreme 
bliss in one's Self, and which is like the (final) 
destructive fire to consume the evolving mass 
of worldly miseries. 

[ The Shastras, by which is meant here Logic, 
Grammer etc. and the six systems of philosophy 


are said to be vast because of the amplitude of 
comment, illustration and argument \vith which their 
doctrines have been developed. ] 

72. Seeing that, when set all over with 
the fires of cyclic destruction the stately 
mountain Meru topples down, the seas which 
are the abode of numerous sharks and 
aquatic animals are dried up, and the earth 
( itself ) comes to an end, though held firm by 
the feet of mountains, what to speak of this 
body as unsteady as the end of the ear of a 
young elephant. 

WCftn^r -According to Hindu mythology the 
mountains are regarded as the supporters of the 

gprTFrrrra*- The cosmic conflagration at the end 
of the present cycle. 


73. (In old age) the body becomes 
shrivelled, the gait becomes unsteady, the 


teeth fall out,- the eye-sight, is lost,idqafness 
increases, the mouth slavers, relatives do, not 
value ( one's ) words, the wife does not nurse ; 
and alas ! even the son of a man of worn-out 
age 'turns hostile. 

74. Seeing the grey hairs on the head of 
a man, emblematic of discomfiture by old age^. 
youthful women at once fly away from hi in, 
as if from a Chandala's ( the untouchable 
In caste ) well whereon is placed a structure 
of bones.! , 

be taken to qualify 

or ^T^. If it be taken as qualifying the 
former, it would mean ; this frame-work of bones., 
( meaning the old man), 

[ It was a custom in former times with the 
Chandalas to line their well with bones for orna- 

75. As long this body Is free from deseas^ 


and decrepitude, as long/ senility is far off, as 
long the powers of the senses are unaffected 
and life is not decaying, so long wise persons 
should put forth mighty exertions for the 
sake of their supreme good, for when the 
house is on fire what avails setting about 
digging a well ( for water ). 

76. Shall we live 'by the celestial river 
practising austerities, or shall we amiably 
serve ( our ) wives graced by virtues, or shall 
we drink of the currents of scriptural 
literature or of the nectar of diverse poetical 
literature? Man having the longevity of a 
few. twinklings of the eye, we do not know 
which (of these ) to undertake ! 


77. These rulers of the world having? **"" 
ipinds restless like a horse and (therefore) diffi- 
4 cult to please, and ambitious as we are with 
minds pitched on vast gain, and as age steals 


away bodily strength and death steals away 
this dear life, ah friend ! nothing and nowhere 
else is there good for the wise in this world 
excepting the practice of austerities. 

T-f nil ^r^pw T^T tffef% f ^ 

R[?^r i i^r* 

7$. When honour has faded, wealth has 
become ruined, those who sue for favours 
have departed in disappointment, friends have 
dwindled away, retainers have left and youth 
has gradually decayed, there remains only 
one thing proper for the wise residence 
somewhere in a grove on the side of a valley 
of the mountain whose rocks are purified by 
the waters of the Ganges. 

[ 3f|W3r the Ganges is so called on account , 
of the myth that Rishi Jahnu drank it up ||d 
then disgorged it through his ear or thigh, whin 
,- in its course towards the Bay of Bengal aftcA ifjg 
descent from the heavens it overflowed *the 
sacrificial platform of the Rishi. Examination 
of the traditional place where the Rishi is 
supposed to have lived in ancient times , suggests 
the likelihood of the course of the river 


obstructed by an extensive eminence with pervious 
soil and of its delayed emergence on the other 
side. ] 

79. Delightful are the rays of the moon, 
delightful the grassy plots in the outskirts 
of the forest, delightful are the pleasures of 
wise men's society, delightful the narratives 
in poetical literature and delightful the face 
of the beloved swimming in the tear-drops of 
(feigned ) anger. Everything is charming, but 
nothing is so when the mind is possessed 
by the evanescence of things. 

0. Is not a palace pleasant to dwell in? 
'Is not music with its accompaniments 
agreeable to listen to? Is not the society of 
women dear as life itself more pleasing? 
Yet, wise men have gone away to the forest,, 
regarding these things as unstable as the 


shadow of a lamp's flame flickering through 
the puff of the wings of a deluded moth. 


81. Oh dear! in our quest through the 
three worlds from the very beginning of their 
creation, none such has come within sight or 
hearing, that can manage the prancings in the 
trap of the elephant of his mind when mad- 
dened by the mysterious, deep-rooted infatua- 
tion for the female elephant of sense-object. 

[ ^SRRR is the elephant-trap, t^t^f--* of the 

maddened.' ] 

: ^rarren 

82; This freedom to wander about, 
food to which no meanness attaches, , 
company of holy men, the cultivation of \ 
tion of Vedic wisdom of which ( unlike Vedic 
vows ) the only fruit is spiritual peace, the 
mind also restrained in its movements to- 
wards external things, ---to such a cons urn- 


on, I know not after life-long reflection, 
: noble austerities may lead ! 

3tf$onRT' is the cessation of the illusions, and so 
5 worries, of the world. This is said to be 
>nly fruit borne by the pursuit of this voV, 
ly, 3oj<f, or study of V'edic wisdom, other 

being ordained to bear fruits in the form of 
ily prosperity. ] 

srra 1 ** 

. Desires have worn -off in our heart 
! youth has also passed away from the 
r. The virtues have proved barren for 
; of appreciative admirers. The powerful, 
estroying, unrelenting, Death is fast 
ining in! What is to be done? Ah 
I see, there is no other way left except 
of feet of the Destroyer of Cupid. 

Shiva is so called in allusion to his 
ig turned the god Cupid to ashes on the eve of 
carriage with Gouri. ] 


84, I make no difference in substance as 
between Shiva, the Lord of the universe and 
the Slayer of (the demon) Jana, ( i. e. Vishnu ), 
the inmost Self of the universe. But still my 
devotion is ( attached ) to One in whose crest 
there is the crescent moon, 

[ This Sloka has been brought forward by the 
rpoet, as a doubt may arise in the mind from the 
preceding Sloka where the poet says that Shiva is 
the only Lord to take our refuge in. Here the 
poet says that really there is no difference between 
Shiva or Vishnu. But he is by nature attached to 
Shiva. This is what is called Ishta-nuhtha, or the 
devotion to one's own ideal. ] 

^nrRfSfra^Pt -This word has been variously 
interpreted: (i) { the inmost Self of the universe/ 
(2) * One who is the knower of all inner things in 
the universe/ (3) i Due who is the Self of all in 
the universe, or it may mean, (4) k in whose 
is the whole universe.' 

: f 

. 85. Sitting in peaceful posture during 
nights when all sounds are stilled into' silence 


somewhere on the banks of the heavenly 
river which shine with the white glow of the 
bright-diffused moonlight, and fearful of the 
miseries of birth and death, crying alotid 
" Shiva, Shiva, Shiva," ah ! when shall we attain 
that ecstacy which is characterised by copious 
tears of joy held in internal control ! ! 

' ' $ 

; 86. Giving away all possessions witlr a 
Jieart filled with tender compassion, remem- 
bering the course of Destiny which ends so 
ruefully in this world and, as the* only refuge 
.for us, meditating on the feet of Hara ( i. e. 
.Shiva ), oh ! we shall spend, in the holy forest, 
'nights all aglow with the beams of the 
autumnal moon, 

87. When shall I pass the days like so 
many moments, residing on the banks of the 
celestial river in Benares, clad in Koufin&m 


( a -strip -of cloth-) and with folded hands 
.raised to the forehead, crying out t( Oh Lord 
of Gouri, the Slayer of Tripura, the Giver of 
all good, the Three-eyed, have mercy ! " 

88. Having bathed in the waters 6f 'the 

Ganges and worshipped Thee, Oh Lord, with 

unblemished fruits and flowers and having 

concentrated my mind, by my stony bed within 

'the mountain cave, on the object of my 

' meditation, blissful in the Self alone, living 

on fruits, and devoted to the Guru's words 

when shall I, Oh! Thou Enemy of cupl 8 

through Thy grace become released from the 

grief which has arisen from my serving- the 

' man of prosperity. > v 

H*reOTOT--'With the sign of fish in the'feet,'-*- 
said to be a sign of uncommon prosperity accord- 
ing to the science of divination by bodily signs. ,, 


i Oh Shiva ! when shall I, living alone, 
from desires, peaceful in mind, with only 
land to eat from and the four quarters 
;arment ( i e. naked ), be able to root Out 
larma ? 

). Those who have only their hand to 
from, who are contented with begged 
, pure by itself, who repose themselves 
vhere ( i. e. require-no house or bed), who 
tantly regard the universe like almost a 
e of grass, who even before giving up the 
r experience the uninterrupted Supreme 
;j for such Yogis, indeed, the path which 
sy of access by Shiva's grace becomes 
nable. ( The path, that is to say, of 
sha or supreme liberation ), 


91. If there is a koupina (even ) worn out 
and shreded hundred times and a wrapper 
^also of the same condition, if one is free from 
all disquieting thought, if food there is, 
obtained unconditionally from begging* and 
sleep on a cremation ground or in the forest, 
if one wanders alone without any let or 
i hindrance, if the mind is- always calm, and if 
one is steadfast in the festive joy of Yoga, 
what is then worth the rulership of the three 

* 92. Can this universe which is but a* mere 
Reflection, engender greed in wise men? The 
"ocean surely does not become agitated by the 
movement of a little fish. 

'* [Just as a fish cannot set up a swaying of tbe 
'icean, so this universe, * a mere imagfe in pure 
consciousness, cannbt move the latter, with which 

wise: men become identified, to any -sentiment of 
covetousness. ] , . , . 


'93. O mother Lakshmi (Goddess of wealth*^ 
serve ( thou ) some one else, do not be 
longing for me. Those who desire enjoyment 
are subject to thee, but what art thou to us who 
are free from desires? Now we wish to live 
upon food articles obtained from begging and 
placed, (conformably to its) being; sanctified, 
in a receptacle of Palasha leaves pieced to- 
gether on the spot. 

94. Tlie earfh is his high bed, the arms 
his ample pillow, the sky is his canopy, 
the genial breeze his fan, the autumnal 
moon is his lamp, and rejoicing in the 
company of abnegation as his wife, the sage 
lies down happily and peacefully, like a 
monarch of undiminibhed glory. 

95. There lives the real ascetic who feeds 
ITirns'elf "on ahus, utiattaclied to the society 


of men, always free in his efforts ( I. e. with- 
out obligation or restraint from outside) and 
pursuing 1 a path of indifference as regards 
what to give up or what to take ; his worn- 
out garment is made up of rags cast away 
in the streets, and for seat he has with him 
a blanket ; he is devoid of pride and egoism 
and he is concerned only in enjoying the hap- 
piness arising from the control of miud. 

96. When accosted by people who loqua^ 
ciotrsly express doubt and surmise, such as 
" Is he a Chand^la, or a twice-born one, or a 
Sudra, or an ascetic, or perhaps some supreme 
Yogi with his mind full of the discrimination 
of Reality," the Yogis themselves go their 
way neither pleased nor displeased in mind. 

[ The Chanddla is accursed beyond the pale of 
the four castes, while the Sudra belongs to the 
fourth caste. The Brahmana, Ksha-ttrlya and 

Vaiishya form the -thrct* twicer-bom castes. 


97. (If) for serpents ( even ) air has been 
provided by the Creator as food obtainable 
without killing or toiling; (if) beasts are 
contented with feeding on grass-sprouts and 
lying on ground; for men ( also ) with self- 
devotion strong to lead across the ocean of 
transmigratory existence some such liveli- ^ 
hood has beep, created ; and those v\ho 
seek this have aii their gunas invariably 
brought to their final dissolution. 

[ When the gunas, sattra, rajas and ta-mas, are 
finally reduced to the inactivity of equipoise, the 
Yogin reaches beyond Maya. ] 


98. Will those happy days come tcTnSe 1 
when on the bank of the Ganges, sitting in 


thel0tws.posture.oiT a piece of stone in the 
Himalayas, I shall fall into the yo ? a-mdrd 
(i. e. lose all consciousness in Samadhi or 
perfect concentration) resulting from a 
reoular practice of the contemplation of 
Brahman, and when old antelopes having 
nothing to fear, will rub their limbs against 
my body ! 

[qSTW*Mit. lotus-seat; .sitting cross-legged so 
that the soles of the feet protrude above along the 
thighs. ] 

f'cT 118-S.U 

: 99. With the hand serving as sacred cupl 
with begged food tliat comes, through wander- 

in^ and never runs short, with the ten 


quarters as their ample garment and the 
earth as a fixed, spacious bed, blessed are 
they who, having forsaken the manifold 
worldly associations which an attitude of want 
breeds, and self-contented with a heart fully 
matured through their acceptance of absolute 
seclusion, root out all. Karmu ( i. e. the ^ 


pi ex of causes and 'effects -which, grows on 
as action and desire in life follow each other.) 

we prefer to take as theonany 

forms of contact with llie world which result from 
the poverty of an altitude of seeking after worldly 
objects. ] 


ioo. Oh Earth, my mother! Oh Wind, 
my father ! Oh Fire, my friend ! Oh Water, 
my good relative ! Oh Sky, my brother ! 
here is my last salutation to yon with clasped 
hands! Having cast away Ignorance with its 
wonderful infatuations by means of pure 
knowledge resplendent with shining merits 
developed through my association with you 
all, I now merge in the Supreme Brahman. 

[ The terms of familiarity and endearment used 
of the live elements are appropriate in view of the 
final point of blissful parting to which the Yogin 
has been carried through those subtle Tattvas or 
essences of the five elements which characterise 
intermediate stages of Yogic practice, ] 



Here ends the Vairagya-Satakam or the 
Hundred Verses on Renunciation of the triple 
series of such hundred verses named * Subha- 
shita-Trishati. 1